The presence of a huge number of molecules in the winds of supermassive black holes has puzzled scientists. Molecules are in the coolest parts of space, and black holes are considered the most energetic phenomena. So finding molecules in the winds of a black hole is like finding a piece of ice in a hot furnace.
Researchers for a long time could not understand how something can survive the heat of the energy outflows. However, the new theory believes that this is not about survival. This is a completely new molecule, born in the winds with exceptional characteristics, which allows them to adapt and develop in a hostile environment.
This idea belongs to Alexander Riching, who created a computer code, where for the first time the detailed chemical processes carried out in interstellar gas were simulated. When the wind of a black hole blows gas from the host galaxy, it will heat up and destroy any molecules. Molecular chemistry simulations in the black hole winds have shown that the retarded gas can eventually cool and create new molecules. The theory answers the questions raised by early reviews of the Herschel Observatory and the ALMA Massif (Chile). In 2015, researchers confirmed the presence of energy outflows from supermassive black holes seen in galactic centers. These outflows destroy everything in their path, extruding material for stellar birth. It is believed that these winds are responsible for the presence of red and dead elliptical galaxies, where no new stars appear.
In 2017, watched the rapid movement of new stars appearing in the winds. Previously, this phenomenon was considered impossible because of the extreme situation in the outflows. New stars are created from molecular gas, so the theory is well superimposed on the situation.
This is the first time that the process of the formation of molecules has worked in detail and provided a convincing explanation for their presence in the winds of supermassive black holes. The molecules thus formed are brighter and warmer in the infrared rays. The theory will be able to finally check with the launch of the telescope of James Webb in 2019.