In this illustration, two protons collide with enormous force, producing the Higgs boson, which instantaneously decays with the release of two tau particles. The rest of the energy from the collision spills out in the form of two jets. The size of the angle between these jets helps determine whether the Higgs boson has formed. This is usually judged by his participation in a change in the charge ratio, which suggests that the nature of the interaction of a particle and its oppositely charged antiparticle differ.
Today, there is growing excitement around the second triennium of the Large Andron Collider. Physicists are actively planning experiments that will become possible after a particle accelerator starts pushing particles together with record energy. It is expected that this will happen in 2015.
One of these experiments was widely discussed in a new paper published in the journal “Physical Review D”. Its goal is to answer the question: why does matter prevail in the universe, and not antimatter. And this is one of the most pressing mysteries of modern physics.
What will be the subject of study? Probably, they will be the infamous Higgs boson, on which, perhaps, lies part of the responsibility for the asymmetry of matter and antimatter in our Universe. When the Universe arose during the Big Bang, which happened about 13.75 billion years ago, the number of formed particles of matter and antimatter should have been approximately equal. And as you know, during the meeting of matter and antimatter comes from complete destruction. Hence the conclusion: if the number of formed particles was equal, then neither matter nor antimatter should have remained in the Universe. Instead, the universe would remain an energy broth where neither matter nor antimatter can form.
But, as we see around us, tiny particles of antimatter can be found everywhere. Although Veselennaya is almost completely filled with dark matter. Hence the question: with what is the predominance of matter connected?
Since the discovery of the Higgs boson, physicists have studied its characteristics in the Large andron Collider. When a particle accelerator pushes protons inside its detectors, several single Higgs bosons are created. But they cannot exist in isolation for a long time. They quickly break down and they disintegrate into other subatomic particles and energy.
The Higgs boson itself cannot be seen directly in the Large Hadron Collider. Its presence can be judged only by residual Higgs decay particles.
After billions and billions of collisions, in the end, a fairly strong signal was registered, on the basis of which in 2012, scientists were able to solemnly announce the historic discovery of the Higgs boson. This was important not only because the observations confirmed the very existence of the boson (which was supposed as early as the 1960s), but because the boson explained part of the Standard Higgs Model with theoretical energy. While the Higgs region is closely associated with matter, and physicists are trying to figure out whether Higgs can be a major factor in the imbalance of matter and antimatter. Special attention is paid to a phenomenon known as a charge ratio violation.
The search for violation of the invariance of the bit ratio in the Large Hadron Collider is associated with great difficulties. Matt Dolan, a researcher at the SLAC division of the National Accelerator Laboratory of Energy at Stanford University, California, made this statement. “We are just starting to observe the properties of the Higgs boson. Therefore, each experiment should be carefully designed. Only in this way will we improve our understanding of how Higgs behaves in different conditions. ”