The dark side of the moon was first seen in 1959 (a decade before Neil Armstrong landed on the surface of an earth satellite). But we still have not revealed the secrets of the other side, which is not revealed to earthly observers.
Scientists believe that the dark side is dark and quiet: quiet enough for researchers on the lunar surface to listen to radio signals from outer space. This idea seems so attractive that at ESA they even wanted to create a lunar observatory with a giant telescope.
What do researchers want to hear? We are talking about weak signals (ancient), belonging to the “dark ages”. This is a period of 500 million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was an accumulation of hydrogen and helium. Neutral hydrogen atoms sometimes found themselves in a rotational transition, sending radio signals into space.
These signals are still traveling in outer space and are considered the only hope of finding out something about this distant period. The only problem is that the most ancient signals are endowed with ultra-low frequency. It is almost impossible to catch them from Earth, as even the signal from a conventional television console will interfere.
Tuning to these frequencies is incredibly difficult. The “National Zone of Quiet Radio” in West Virginia allows you to study some of these signals, and the MWA array tunes in to signals above 100 MHz indicating events that occurred 400 million years after the Big Bang. To move further, you need to go below this mark. Scientists are convinced that signals from the “dark ages” will reveal the secrets of recombination (as the original electrons and protons combined), and also demonstrate the process of reionization (as matter began to unite into stars and galaxies). Some even believe that on the far side of the moon will be quiet enough to catch a signal from the aliens.
Back in 2008, astronomers from the US Naval Research Laboratory proposed to place the huge “Lunar Interferometer of the Dark Ages” telescope on the dark side of the Moon. But the project did not get off the ground. The same thing happened with a similar idea from NASA in 2013. It is difficult to do science on the lunar surface, if you are not on it.
Therefore, the best option is to install the base on the lunar surface. A permanent human presence will allow you to place and maintain telescopes. While on the dark side are only artificial Chinese vehicles.