People from ancient times are interested in the Universe and other worlds. This is evidenced by the numerous buildings focused on certain stars, constellations or planets, as well as structures that served as observatories before the appearance of the first telescopes. For example, the mysterious Stonehenge, which was built more than 4000 years ago with some unknown purpose, is attributed to such. But it is also surprising that even in those moments when the Earth was not fully studied, people tried to cognize other worlds and believed that we are not the only creatures in the solar system and the Universe.
Early scientists even made certain assumptions about which creatures could live on other planets. For example, moral and moral personalities were assigned to Venus, while more isolated and serious settled on cold gas giants. Mars was of great interest, as it was often seen in the night sky. There was an interesting theory about its inhabitants. Some scientists, and representatives of the 19th and 20th centuries, were convinced that the red color of the surface was the result of spilled blood, as there were terrible wars on the planet for several centuries. Modern spacecraft explored the surface of the Red Planet, and now these assumptions can be attributed to jokes about space, and not to serious scientific statements.
Now on Mars there are several active rovers and probes that continue to explore the planet. Of course, we did not find aliens in tripods there that scared the readers of “War of the Worlds”. The pyramids, which appeared in the first photographs due to the effect of paradolia, did not appear there either. However, the planet itself continues to attract the attention of not only researchers, but also those enthusiasts who dream of creating the first stable colonies there. Some go even further and suggest terraforming the planet so that it becomes the second Earth. But why and how to do it? It is important to understand that the Sun is not a static object in our system. This is a star that develops and grows in size. In the next 1-4 billion years, it will begin to grow to the status of a red giant. What does this mean for us? Well, we'll have to say goodbye to Mercury and Venus, as they will be swallowed first. If we do not become a sunny dinner, then we will encounter the evaporation of the oceans, the critically high temperature and the extinction of life. It seems that we still have a lot of time, but scientists understand that the future of the human race and members of all our living creatures depends on today's decisions.
Mars looks attractive because it is close to us and does not fall into the critical line of death. However, it is worth noting that after the transformation of the Sun and on the Red Planet it will become uncomfortable, so it’s better to settle immediately on the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, etc. But still, Mars cannot be avoided, because this is an ideal training ground for further settlement of more distant worlds.
Already, NASA and private space companies like SpaceX are considering various projects. In the 2030s. plan to launch the first astronauts on the fourth planet from the Sun and lay the beginning of the colony. For this purpose, various technologies are being developed, such as 3D printing in space, in order to manufacture all the necessary items on the planet and not to depend on supplies from the Earth. The same applies to food and water, because at the International Space Station successful experiments are conducted on growing plants. There is a more difficult way - terraforming. This is the transformation of the planet into a world similar to Earth. That is, a planet with its own atmosphere, water, air, and habitable conditions. This is a real process, but too costly in time, money and resources. It is necessary to learn to direct comets to the planet that will deliver water, as well as to melt the ice and plant the vegetation to alien soil.
So far all this seems impossible. However, it is worth recalling that once spaceflight was considered just a dream. But we had Yuri Gagarin and many of his followers. Yes, and on the moon, we have already walked. Therefore, it is likely that one day we will be able to populate a new planet, which we will call home.