Solar "tadpoles" in the hot atmosphere of a star


NASA spacecraft recorded jets in the form of tadpoles in areas of intense solar magnetic activity. Of course, these are not living beings. Scientists report that the formation represented by superheated gas - plasma. This is the same material that accounts for 99% of the observable universe. Moreover, NASA believes that tadpoles can help solve a long-standing riddle.

On the Sun, there is a highly heated upper atmospheric layer. This is a crown that is 200 times hotter than a solar surface. Researchers do not yet know why the external atmosphere is hotter than the surface.

The solar corona releases charged particles coming to Earth. During solar storms, intense radiation can knock satellites or become a threat to the health and lives of astronauts. The last such major event occurred in the 1800s, when telegraph lines were out of order.


Researchers are still operating on two explanations similar to solar heating: nano-flashes or electromagnetic waves. However, two competing phenomena are able to cooperate.

The theory of flashbacks suggests that explosions can send energy into the solar atmosphere. Such explosions are created when the lines of the magnetic field connect and emit red-hot charged particles. The theory of electromagnetic waves provides that the phenomenon of Alfven waves can push charged particles into the external atmosphere of the Sun. In this discussion, tadpoles are assigned an important role. Scientists believe that these plasma balls can transport heat to the corona during moments of strong solar activity. This is especially true when the star is at the peak of the 11-year cycle. During highs, the Sun increases the number of spots, flares, and coronal mass ejections.

The researchers were able to fix the tadpoles by viewing the data from the IRIS spectrograph. Most likely, tadpoles are formed by sunspots, after which they “float” above the surface at an altitude of 4800 km.

The team created a computer model that showed that tadpoles might have enough plasma and energy to warm up the inner corona. They are probably created when magnetic lines reunite inside sunspots. IRIS has been watching the Sun for the past 5 years.

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