KiDS dark matter map (G12 region)

Dark matter and dark energy were not directly observed, but emerged from an assumption based on a review of other phenomena and calculations. These hypotheses explain the movement of stars in galaxies and the acceleration of universal expansion. But scientists from UNIGE believe that even without these concepts, universal phenomena can be demonstrated. Thus, a new theoretical model appeared, based on the scale invariance of empty space.

In 1933, Fritz Zwicky stated that there is much more matter in space than is available in observations. Scientists have called the riddle “dark matter.” In the 1970s Vera Rubin returned to this topic, trying to explain stellar speed and motion. After that, scientists spent a lot of time and used a huge amount of tools to “see” this substance, but all in vain.

In 1998, Australian and American astrophysicists determined that the universal expansion is accelerating. But it was not possible to calculate the energy that could surpass Newton's gravity. Thus, dark energy and dark matter remain enigmas.

## A new model comes into play

The universe is described by physicists by the equations of general relativity, universal gravity, and Newton's quantum mechanics. Among the theories of the origin of the universe in the first place is the “Big Bang”. André Mader from UNIGE believes that the starting model was not taken into account here, namely, the scale invariance of empty space. That is, empty space and its characteristics do not change after the processes of expansion or compression. In Einstein's equations, empty space comes first, because it acts in a cosmological constant. Taking this hypothesis as a point of reference, Mader decided to revise the Standard Universal Model. During cosmological tests, it turned out that the new model of invariance corresponds to the observations. She also predicts the acceleration of expansion and does not need dark energy. It turns out that dark energy may not exist.

Next, Mader carefully studied Newton's law, which had to be slightly modified in the new theory. It turned out that to explain the high speed indicators of galactic clusters, it is also not necessary to use dark matter. The third test focused on the dispersion of the velocities of the stars around the Milky Way. Mader was able to explain this process with his hypothesis.

If the scientist is right, then a ten-year riddle will lose power over the scientific world and help stop the debate between scientists.