Imagine that somewhere in the Universe there can exist tunnels that can significantly reduce the time to travel in outer space. One trip and you in short terms will overcome hundreds, and even billions of light years. It sounds good, but is it possible in reality?
Today we'll talk about wormholes. Most likely, you have heard of them called “wormholes”. This is a topological feature in space and time, forming a kind of tunnel. It can connect between itself different parts of a single curved space or become the only bridge between two different spaces (other universes, dimensions, etc.).
It is important to understand that this feature exists only in the hypothesis and the presence of wormholes is not yet possible to be proved experimentally or in observations. The concept itself appeared in the general theory of relativity. For the first time, the wormholes were talked about in 1916 (during the theorizing of white holes), and in 1935 Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen developed the idea.
Anatomy of a Wormhole
Despite the fact that this is a hypothetical object, the researchers developed its “anatomy” in detail. The wormhole has two “mouths”. These are spherical holes that serve as an entrance and exit for the traveler. There is a “throat” between them, namely our tunnel, connecting the two parts of outer space. Einstein was able to prove the existence of wormholes, but only in mathematical calculations. Models show that the tunnel itself must be filled with exotic matter, whose energy density will have a negative figure. Only such conditions will allow the molehill to be functional, as it will form a powerful gravitational repulsion, and will help not to shrink.
The general theory of relativity allows for the presence of such tunnels. It is believed that the mouth can be represented by a black hole. However, it must be an unusual black hole. Do not think that every collapse of a dying star will create a future wormhole.
Can I travel through a wormhole?
Stephen Hawking was convinced that the man would not be able to use the wormholes because of their instability.
In science fiction they love to use wormholes, because they allow you to quickly overcome great distances or travel to other universes / dimensions. However, in reality, it is much more difficult to use the wormhole than we think.
First of all, there is the problem of size. Researchers believe that primary wormholes are presented at microscopic levels, where their parameters do not exceed about 30 cm. Such tunnels will be difficult to find, and the spacecraft will not fit. However, there is an assumption that the expansion of the universe was supposed to cause the stretching of wormholes. It is difficult to determine how stable a particular wormhole will be. In theory, they are divided into passable and impassable. The latter (like the Einstein-Rosen Bridge) are destroyed too quickly. It will be necessary to add a certain amount of exotic matter to stabilize the mole hole and remain open for a long time.
There is also a suspicion that the addition of ordinary matter (ship, people, etc.) will lead to the destruction or compression of the tunnel. However, researchers do not abandon attempts to explore this topic, because wormholes can become a useful tool for studying the Universe.
Stephen Hawking was convinced that man could not use wormholes due to their instability. However, some scientists believe that with certain knowledge such tunnels can be controlled. Moreover, wormholes can connect not only areas of space-time or two universes, but also become a kind of time machine.
So far, wormholes exist only in hypotheses and fantasy dreams. But perhaps one day, the first group of people would risk seeing how deep the molehill would turn out to be.