Traveling through space and time is possible not only in science fiction films and science fiction books, but a little more and it can become a reality. Many well-known and respected experts are working on the study of such a phenomenon as a wormhole and a space-time tunnel.
The wormhole, in the definition of physicist Eric Davis, is a certain cosmic tunnel, also called a throat, connecting two distant regions in the Universe or two different Universes - if other Universes exist - or two different time periods, or different spatial dimensions. Despite the fact that existence has not been proven, scientists seriously consider all sorts of ways to use passable wormholes, subject to their existence, to overcome the distance at the speed of light, and even time travel.
Scientists need to find them before using wormholes. Today, unfortunately, no evidence of the existence of wormholes has been found. But if they still exist, their location may not be as difficult as it seems at first glance.
What is a wormhole?
To date, there are several theories of the occurrence of wormholes. Mathematician Ludwig Flamm, who used Albert Einstein's equation of relativity, first proposed the term “wormhole”, describing a process when gravity can bend a temporary space related to physical reality tissue, as a result of which a space-time tunnel is formed. Ali Evgün, from the Eastern Mediterranean University in Cyprus, suggests that wormholes occur in densely dense areas of dark matter. According to this theory, wormholes could exist in the outer regions of the Milky Way, where there is dark matter, and within other galaxies. Mathematically he was able to prove that there are all the necessary conditions for confirming this theory.
"In the future, it will be possible to indirectly observe such experiments, as shown in the film Interstellar," said Ali Evgyun.
Thorne and a number of scientists came to the conclusion that even if a wormhole had formed due to the necessary factors, it would most likely have collapsed before any object or person passed through it. In order to keep the wormhole open long enough, it would take a large amount of so-called “exotic matter”. One form of natural “exotic matter” is dark energy, Davis explains its action in this way: “pressure, which is below atmospheric pressure, creates a gravitational-repulsive force, in turn, pushing the inner space of our Universe outward, which produces an inflationary expansion of the Universe”.
Such exotic material as dark matter is distributed in the Universe five times more than ordinary substances. Until now, scientists have not been able to detect accumulations of dark matter or dark energy, therefore many of their properties are unknown. The study of their properties occurs through the study of the space around them.
Through the wormhole through time - the reality?
The idea of time travel is quite popular not only among researchers. On the theory of the wormhole based Alice's journey through the looking glass in the eponymous novel by Lewis Carroll. What is a space-time tunnel? The region of space at the far end of the tunnel should be distinguished from the area around the entrance, due to distortions like reflection in curved mirrors. Another sign may be the concentrated movement of light directed through the wormhole tunnel by air currents. Davis calls the phenomenon at the front end of the wormhole "the caustic effect of the rainbow." Such effects may be visible from a distance. "Astronomers plan to use telescopes to hunt these rainbow phenomena, in search of a natural, or even unnaturally created, walkable wormhole," said Davis. - “I have never heard that the project still got off the ground."
As part of his study of the wormhole, Thorn suggested the theory that the wormhole could be used as a time machine. Mental experiments related to time travel often face paradoxes. Perhaps the most famous of them is the paradox of the grandfather: If the researcher goes into the past and kills his grandfather, then this person will not be able to be born, and accordingly would never return back in time. It can be assumed that there is no way back in time travel, according to Davis, Thorn's work has opened up new opportunities for scientists to explore.
Ghost Communication: Wormholes and the Quantum World
"The entire artisanal industry of theoretical physics grew out of theories that led to the development of other space-time methods that produce the described causes of the time machine paradoxes," said Davis. In spite of everything, the possibility of using a wormhole for time travel attracts both fans of science fiction and those who want to change their past. Davis believes, based on modern theories, that in order to make a wormhole a time machine, flows at one or both ends of the tunnel will need to be accelerated to speeds approaching the speed of light.
“Based on this, it would be extremely difficult to build a time machine based on a wormhole,” said Davis. “With regard to this, it will be much easier to use wormholes for interstellar travel in space.”
Other physicists have suggested that time travel using a wormhole can cause massive energy buildup that will destroy a tunnel before it can be used as a time machine — a process known as reverse quantum reaction. However, dreaming about the potential of a wormhole is still fun: “Think of all the possibilities that people would get if they found a way that they could do if they could travel in time?” Said Davis. - "Their adventures would be very interesting, if not more."